In the wake of this Summit, sustainable development represents, over time, a frame of reference for public policies in general and urban public action in particular Gariepy and Gauthier, In this particular context, making the sustainable city Emelianoff, has gradually become an objective that has been integrated into the policies, plans and projects of urban municipalities.
However, sustainable development is still the subject of debate Mancebo, , Levy, , particularly on the relationship between economic development, which remains associated with growth, respect for the environment and social equity; on the adequacy between the principles of sustainable development invoked by public action and the concrete effects of the measures implemented; on reducing sustainable development to the environmental issue given, among other things, global warming; on the various scales of sustainable development, from global to local.
Sustainable urban development Da Cunha et al.
What are the plans, programs and projects that aim to make the city sustainable? How is sustainable urban development conceived? How are these various strategies implemented? To what extent do they contribute to achieving the sustainable city?
Five articles are gathered here around these questions. The first two articles deal with Transit Oriented Development TOD projects planned as part of spatial and metropolitan development planning, the aim of which is to create high-density residential development poles around a railway station or metro station to tackle the problem of urban sprawl and reduce automobile use. The third article questions the fact that urban sprawl is seen as incompatible with sustainable urban development and is interested, from a flow analysis, in the structuring of regional secondary poles that offer services and local activities.
The fourth article analyzes a municipal public action that aims to achieve sustainable districts but, after focusing primarily on the environment, tries to cover other dimensions. Finally, the fifth article also addresses the sustainable city through the district, by examining, from planning documents, the evolution of the residential social dimension in the development of a historic district in relation to its built heritage and its touristic economic function.
At the heart of this Plan , potential TOD areas or Transit-Oriented Development are identified to promote mixed and dense neighborhood development, anchored to public transport nodes.
It aims at guiding the future growth of the population and to combat the dispersion of urbanization. This model of sustainable urban planning proposes to make a major shift in planning policies, particularly for suburban municipalities. The proposed analysis opens the "black box" of the negotiations that took place between the different levels of government involved in the production and definition of the MPDP content.
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Thus, the article underlines that the adoption of this new paradigm of sustainable development by the MMC is not free from internal contradictions. Moreover, it emphasizes that the production of a TOD-based MDPD has been the occasion not only of lively negotiations by local elected representatives of suburban municipalities, but also of several local adaptations of the reference model. Finally, this article presents an indirect interest that of allowing a retrospective glance to grasp the path traveled, by the local elected officials in particular, as regards the recent re appropriation of the concept and its principles.
This re appropriation can be particularly grasped through the representations and actions of the elected representatives in the planning and implementation of the TODs on their territory, as the following article points out. Faced with a relatively malleable and transnational urban planning model, the author wonders about its political trajectory, in the Montreal context, since the adoption of the MDPD in A quick genealogy of the concept coined by P.
International Planning Organisations Database - ISOCARP
Calthorpe and its international diffusion highlights local adaptation processes of the original principles of the TOD or the difficulties faced by municipalities to implement them and achieve the expected results, especially in terms of sustainability. The local contexts in which these projects take place play a major role in the operationalization of the TODs. As such, the author recalls that after the adoption of the MDPD, an original process of support for municipalities, to ensure their implementation, was coordinated by the MMC, that of "innovative projects. If the concept of TOD is not defined in detail in the MDPD, elected representatives take it as an opportunity for territorial development.
They propose diversified development concepts, which sometimes join the original model. However, local issues strongly color the proposed content and objectives. And implementation sometimes strains the stated principles and objectives. The local constraints or difficulties encountered are numerous. What will the impact be on the the current world population — half of which currently lives in cities and contributes to about three-fourths of global economic output?
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